Sport Psychology

Sport psychology is the application of several disciplines of psychology, including social, cognitive, clinical, and physiological psychology.  Sport psychologists apply theories from these various disciplines to facilitate peak performance, enhance participation in sport, and help athletes overcome problems that impede performance.  Many of the techniques sport psychologists use are qualitative in nature, meaning they examine issues using interviews or observations to provide evaluations and solutions that the psychologist believes will resolve the issue.  Traditional sport psychology consultants using a clinical model take a more directive approach where the consultant is the expert/diagnostician (a doctor-patient model).

Helpful Links

Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) 
American Psychological Association (APA) - Sports and Performance

Organizational Psychology

Organizational psychology (aka industrial/organizational psychology) is the scientific study of individual, team, and organizational performance using psychological theories and the scientific method.  Organizational psychologists examine how attitudes, beliefs, norms, and other psychological phenomena affect behavior of individuals and groups.  Many of the problems that organizational psychologists solve include how to select, motivate, and develop members of organizations.  Organizational psychologists study both individuals and groups to maximize their performance.  Many of the techniques organizational psychologists use are quantitative in nature, meaning they examine issues using data and statistics to provide objective evaluations and solutions.  Organizational psychology consultants typically use a process consultation approach, where the consultant helps the human system help itself, rather than prescribing solutions.

Helpful Links

Society for Industrial-Organizational Psychology (SIOP)
American Psychological Association (APA) - Industrial-Organizational